Potassium hydroxide white powder or flake solid, with strong alkaline and corrosive, easy to absorb moisture in the air and deliquescence, absorption of carbon dioxide and potassium carbonate. It is used as desiccant, absorbent, oxalic acid and potassium salt, electroplating, carving and lithography. What is the synthesis principle of potassium hydroxide? Today, let's introduce the synthesis principle of potassium hydroxide?
1、 The preparation of electrolyte for mercury electrolysis is the same as that for diaphragm electrolysis. In the electrolysis chamber, graphite (or metal) is used as anode and mercury as cathode. The chlorine generated by electrolysis is sent to the chlorine drying process, and the potassium amalgam generated flows into the mercury dissolving chamber. Most of the unreacted potassium hydroxide is treated in the state of dilute brine and then returned to the raw material dissolution process. Potassium amalgam reacts with water to produce potassium hydroxide and hydrogen. Because the concentration of potassium hydroxide from the mercury dissolving chamber is 45% to 50%, it can be used as liquid potassium hydroxide product, or evaporated to form solid alkali or flake potassium hydroxide product.
2、 Potassium hydroxide, the raw material of diaphragm electrolysis, is dissolved into saturated solution in the salt bath. When heated to 90 ℃, potassium carbonate, caustic potassium and barium chloride are added to remove impurities such as calcium, magnesium and sulfate. After sedimentation and slag removal, hydrochloric acid neutralization and refining, the 280-315g / L potassium hydroxide solution containing potassium hydroxide is preheated to 70-75 ℃ for electrolysis to obtain potassium hydroxide, chlorine and hydrogen.
The concentration of potassium hydroxide obtained by diaphragm method is 10% to 11%, and the solution containing 45% to 50% potassium hydroxide is prepared by evaporation concentration and cooling clarification; It can also continue to concentrate in the alkali boiling pot and decolorize to produce solid potassium hydroxide or flake potassium hydroxide products.
In addition, the industrial preparation of potassium hydroxide is the aqueous solution of electrolytic potassium hydroxide. Because potassium hydroxide is more difficult to dehydrate than sodium hydroxide, the purity of commercial products can only reach 85% to 86%. If purification is needed, the same method can be used to purify sodium hydroxide.
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